Milk and Dairy Products

Selecting Proper Homogenization Parameters for Milk and Dairy Products and Their Effects

The most common applications of homogenization are milk and dairy products.

High pressure can be applied in two ways, namely static and dynamic. High pressure is applied to the liquid which is immobilized in the container at static pressure for a certain time. In the dynamic pressure application, the liquid is forced to pass through a narrow fenestration in a short time under high pressure.

What is Homogenized Milk? How is milk homogenization performed?

Homogenization is a high pressure application. Homogenization process is one of the most commonly preferred applications in milk and dairy products. The fat globules in the milk are broken down by applying high pressure in the homogenization of milk. Thus, the separation of fat from milk is prevented. The process can be applied sequentially or repeatedly to increase the homogenization effect.

Homogenization Methods

Homogenization of milk is applied in two methods, namely whole and partial.

The process in which whole milk is passed through the homogenizer is called "whole homogenization". This method provides a good effect, however, it is not generally preferred because of energy and time requirements.

After removing cream from the milk, the homogenization process is applied to the cream at 50-75 °C and 150-200 bar, then the desired fat rate and the skimmed milk are adjusted. This method is called "partial homogenization". This method saves time and energy as less product is passed through the homogenizer.

Factors affecting homogenization:

  • The pressure applied,
  • The temperature applied,
  • The design of the homogenizer head.

Homogenization Pressure

The increase in pressure reduces the diameter of the fat globules. Pressure values applied for drinking milk:

Pasteurized milk                            : 100-200 bar (at 65°C)

UHT sterilized milk          : 150-250 bar (at 65°C)

Homogenization temperature

The recommended temperature for homogenized milk ranges between 60 - 75°C. The temperature below 50°C is not desired for the application.

The temperature of the milk increases slightly due to mechanical friction during the homogenization process; this increase can be calculated. The sum of the initial temperature of the milk and the temperature increase caused by the friction gives the actual temperature of the milk. To obtain the desired homogenization temperature value, it is required to adjust the initial temperature of the milk according to this value.

Design of homogenizer head

The design of the homogenizer head is highly effective on the result of the process. The homogenizer head allowing higher cavitation values at lower pressure values ensures more effective results.

Benefits of Homogenization to Milk

Effects on the qualities of milk:

  • Increases the viscosity of the milk, thus improving its quality.
  • It provides homogeneous distribution of fat in milk. Thus, the formation of the cream layer is prevented.
  • Since the fat particles in the milk are divided into smaller pieces, it expands the surface area and makes the milk taste more delicious.
  • After homogenization, milk looks whiter since it reflects light better.
  • Facilitates the digestion of the milk.

Selecting Milk Homogenizer

You should select the proper homogenizer to obtain the most accurate and effective results from the homogenization process. You can rely on the experienced team of HOMMAK Machine in the selection of milk homogenizer, its design, and manufacturing. Please contact us for detailed information.

Why do they homogenize milk?

Milk is naturally a heterogeneous fluid. Milk and dairy products are required to have a homogeneous structure. The heterogeneity of milk during the production of dairy products adversely affects the quality of the product. This makes the homogenization process necessary.

How do they homogenize milk?

Large fat globules in the milk are fragmented by passing the milk through high-pressure homogenizers at a temperature of 60-70 0C and pressure of 150-200 bar. Thus, homogenized milk is obtained.

Why is homogenized milk bad for you?

  • The homogenization process is a purely physical process. It does not cause any changes in the chemical structure and nutritional value of milk.
  • The research studies do not report any findings related to the harmful effect of the homogenization process on health.

Homogenization improves product quality and facilitates digestion.

Is non homogenized milk better than homogenized?

Both are identical in terms of their nutritional values. Homogenized milk can be considered better than non-homogenized milk in terms of its properties and advantages.

Can I start my baby on whole milk at 10 months?

An infant of 10 months has difficulty in digesting cow’s milk. For infants, it is not recommended to start giving homogenized cow milk before 12 months and non-homogenized cow milk before 24 months.

Is homogenized milk easier to digest?

Homogenized milk is easier to digest compared to normal milk since large fat globules are fragmented.

What is the difference between pasteurized and homogenized milk?

  • The homogenization process does not change the chemical properties of milk, enhances its stable structure, and improves the product quality. This process is applied at the temperature of 60-70°C and pressure of 150-200 bar.
  • In pasteurization, the chemical structure of milk changes. It is applied to prevent bacterial growth in milk. During this process, the temperature can increase up to 72-85°C.

Is homogenized milk good for babies?

Since the digestive systems of babies are not as developed as those of adults, digesting milk is difficult for babies. The homogenization process enhances the digestion of milk for babies.

Can I start cow's milk at 11 months?

An infant of 11 months has difficulty in digesting cow’s milk. In the case of homogenized milk, milk will be easier to digest for infants. In infants, it is recommended not to start giving homogenized cow’s milk before 1 year of age and non-homogenized cow’s milk before 2 years of age.

homogenizer for Dairy