Selecting Proper Homogenization Parameters for Milk and Dairy Products and Their Effects
The most common applications of homogenization are milk and dairy products.
High pressure can be applied in two ways, namely static and dynamic. High pressure is applied to the liquid which is immobilized in the container at static pressure for a certain time. In the dynamic pressure application, the liquid is forced to pass through a narrow fenestration in a short time under high pressure.
What is Homogenized Milk? How is milk homogenization performed?
Homogenization is a high pressure application. Homogenization process is one of the most commonly preferred applications in milk and dairy products. The fat globules in the milk are broken down by applying high pressure in the homogenization of milk. Thus, the separation of fat from milk is prevented. The process can be applied sequentially or repeatedly to increase the homogenization effect.
Homogenization of milk is applied in two methods, namely whole and partial.
The process in which whole milk is passed through the homogenizer is called "whole homogenization". This method provides a good effect, however, it is not generally preferred because of energy and time requirements.
After removing cream from the milk, the homogenization process is applied to the cream at 50-75 °C and 150-200 bar, then the desired fat rate and the skimmed milk are adjusted. This method is called "partial homogenization". This method saves time and energy as less product is passed through the homogenizer.
Factors affecting homogenization:
- The pressure applied,
- The temperature applied,
- The design of the homogenizer head.
The increase in pressure reduces the diameter of the fat globules. Pressure values applied for drinking milk:
Pasteurized milk : 100-200 bar (at 65°C)
UHT sterilized milk : 150-250 bar (at 65°C)
The recommended temperature for homogenized milk ranges between 60 - 75°C. The temperature below 50°C is not desired for the application.
The temperature of the milk increases slightly due to mechanical friction during the homogenization process; this increase can be calculated. The sum of the initial temperature of the milk and the temperature increase caused by the friction gives the actual temperature of the milk. To obtain the desired homogenization temperature value, it is required to adjust the initial temperature of the milk according to this value.
Design of homogenizer head
The design of the homogenizer head is highly effective on the result of the process. The homogenizer head allowing higher cavitation values at lower pressure values ensures more effective results.
Benefits of Homogenization to Milk
Effects on the qualities of milk:
- Increases the viscosity of the milk, thus improving its quality.
- It provides homogeneous distribution of fat in milk. Thus, the formation of the cream layer is prevented.
- Since the fat particles in the milk are divided into smaller pieces, it expands the surface area and makes the milk taste more delicious.
- After homogenization, milk looks whiter since it reflects light better.
- Facilitates the digestion of the milk.
Selecting Milk Homogenizer
You should select the proper homogenizer to obtain the most accurate and effective results from the homogenization process. You can rely on the experienced team of HOMMAK Machine in the selection of milk homogenizer, its design, and manufacturing. Please contact us for detailed information.